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Swift

This cheat sheet provides examples of using Swift that cover basic Swift knowledge, control flow etc.

#Getting Started

#Variable

var score = 0  // Variable
let pi = 3.14  // Constant

var greeting = "Hello"
var numberOfToys = 8
var isMorning = true

var numberOfToys: Int = 8
numberOfToys += 1

print(numberOfToys)
// prints "9"

#Type annotations

var greeting: String = "Hello"
var numberOfToys: Int = 8
var isMorning: Bool = true
var price: Double = 8.99

#Arithmetic operators

  • + Add
  • - Subtraction
  • * Multiplication
  • / Division
  • % Remainder

var x = 0
x = 4 + 2 // x is now 6
x = 4 - 2 // x is now 2
x = 4 * 2 // x is now 8
x = 4 / 2 // x is now 2
x = 4 % 2 // x is now 0

  • += Adds and assigns sums
  • -= subtract and assign the difference
  • *= Multiplication and assignment
  • /= Divide and assign quotient
  • %= Divide and assign remainder

#Compound Assignment Operators

var numberOfDogs = 100
numberOfDogs += 1
print("There are \(numberOfDogs) Dalmatians!")

// print: There are 101 Dalmatians!

#String interpolation

var apples = 6
print("I have \(apples) apples!")

// print: I have 6 apples!

#Multi-line string

let myLongString = """
Swift?
This is my favorite language!
Yeah!
"""

#Code Comments

// This line represents a comment in Swift.

/*
This is all commented out.
None will run!
*/

#Form a tuple

let player = ("Maya", 5, 150)

print(player) // ("Maya", 5, 150)
print("\(player.0): level \(player.1), \(player.2) pts") // Maya: level 5, 150 pts

#Decompose tuple

let player = (name: "Maya", level: 5)
let (currentName, curLevel) = player
print("\(currentName): level \(curLevel)")
// print: Maya: level 5

#Special comment syntax (MARK)

// MARK: -view settings

MARK can be used to display comments in the column

#Special comment syntax (TODO)

// TODO: update logic to accommodate data changes

TODO is used to display reminders of things that need to be done

#Special Comment Syntax (FIXME)

// FIXME: Fix buggy behavior when making changes to existing entries

FIXME is used to display reminders about things that need to be fixed

#Variable

#Variable declaration

Variables are declared with var:

var greeting = "Hello"
var numberOfToys = 8
var isMorning = true

For clarity, variable declarations can contain type annotations:

var greeting: String = "Hello"
var numberOfToys: Int = 8
var isMorning: Bool = true

Variables are mutable. Their values be changed:

var numberOfToys: Int = 8
numberOfToys += 1

print(numberOfToys)
// print "9"

#Constants

Constants are declared with let:

let greeting = "Hello"
let numberOfToys = 8
let isMorning = true

For clarity, constant declarations can contain type annotations:

let greeting: String = "Hello"
let numberOfToys: Int = 8
let isMorning: Bool = true

Constants are immutable. Their values be changed:

let numberOfToys: Int = 8
numberOfToys += 1
// Error: numberOfToys is immutable

#Computed variables (get and set)

import Foundation

let df = DateFormatter()
df.dateFormat = "d MMMM yyyy"

guard var birth = df.date(from: "5 June 1999") else {
    print("Date is not valid")
    return
}

var age: Int {
    Calendar.current
        .dateComponents([.year],
                        from: birth,
                        to: Date()).year!
}

print(age) // 23
guard let birth2 = df.date(from: "5 June 2002") else {
    print("Date is not valid")
    return
}
birth = birth2
print(age) // 20

In the example below, distanceInFeet has a getter and a setter. Because of the setter, the getter requires the keyword get:

var distanceInMeters: Float = 100

var distanceInFeet: Float {
  get {
    distanceInMeters *3.28
  }
  set(newDistance) {
    distanceInMeters = newDistance /3.28
  }
}

print(distanceInMeters) // 100.0
print(distanceInFeet)   // 328.0

distanceInFeet = 250
print(distanceInMeters) // 76.21951
print(distanceInFeet)   // 250.0

distanceInMeters = 800
print(distanceInMeters) // 800.0
print(distanceInFeet)   // 2624.0

#willSet

var distance = 5 {
  willSet {
    print("The distance will be set")
  }
}

distance = 10 // print: distance will be set

The new value can be accessed in willSet:

var distance = 5 {
  willSet(newDistance) {
    print("The distance will be set \(newDistance)")
  }
}

distance = 10 // print: distance will be set to 10

willSet can be used to execute some code before setting the variable value

#didSet

var distance = 5 {
  didSet {
    print("The distance is set to \(distance)")
    print("Its old value is: \(oldValue)")
  }
}
distance = 10 // print: distance will be set to 10
              // print: its old value is: 5

#willSet and didSet

var distance = 5 {
  willSet(newDistance) {
    print("The distance will be set to \(newDistance)")
  }
  didSet {
    print("The distance is set to \(distance)")
    print("Its old value is: \(oldValue)")
  }
}
distance = 10

#Conditions

#if statement

var halloween = true
if halloween {
  print("Trick or treat!")
}
// print: Trick or treat!
if 5 > 3 {
  print("5 is greater than 3")
} else {
  print("5 is not more than 3")
}
// output: "5 is greater than 3"

#else statement

var turbulence = false

if turbulence {
  print("Please sit down.")
} else {
  print("You are free to move around.")
}
// print: You are free to move around.

#else if statement

var weather = "rainy"
if weather == "sunny" {
  print("Get some sunscreen")
} else if weather == "rainy" {
  print("Take an umbrella")
} else if weather == "snowing" {
  print("Put on your snow boots")
} else {
  print("Invalid weather")
}
// print: take an umbrella

#Comparison Operators

5 > 1      // true
6 < 10     // true
2 >= 3     // false
3 <= 5     // true
"A" == "a" // false
"B" != "b" // true

-< less than -> greater than -<= less than or equal to ->= greater than or equal to -== is equal to -!= is not equal to

#Ternary conditional operator

var driverLicense = true

driverLicense
    ? print("driver seat") : print("passenger seat")
// print: driver's seat

#switch statement

var secondaryColor = "green"

switch secondaryColor {
  case "orange":
    print("A mixture of red and yellow")
  case "purple":
    print("A mix of red and blue")
  default:
    print("This may not be a secondary color")
}
// print: mix of blue and yellow

#switch statement: interval matching

let year = 1905
var artPeriod: String

switch year {
  case 1860...1885:
    artPeriod = "Impressionism"
  case 1886...1910:
    artPeriod = "Post-Impressionism"
  default:
    artPeriod = "Unknown"
}
// print: post-impressionism

#switch statement: composite case

let service = "Seamless"

switch service {
case "Uber", "Lyft":
    print("travel")
  case "DoorDash", "Seamless", "GrubHub":
    print("Restaurant delivery")
  case "Instacart", "FreshDirect":
    print("Grocery Delivery")
  default:
    print("Unknown service")
}
// print: restaurant takeaway

#switch statement: where clause

let num = 7

switch num {
  case let x where x % 2 == 0:
    print("\(num) is even")
  case let x where x % 2 == 1:
    print("\(num) odd number")
  default:
    print("\(num) is invalid")
}

// print: 7 odd

#Logical Operators

!true  // false
!false //true

#Logical Operators &&

true && true   // true
true && false  // false
false && true  // false
false && false // false

#Logical operators ||

true || true   // true
true || false  // true
false || true  // true
false || false // false

#Combined Logical Operators

!false && true || false // true

!false && true first evaluates and returns true Then, the expression, true || false evaluates and returns the final result true

false || true && false // false

true && false first evaluates to return false Then, the expression, false || false evaluates and returns the final result false

#Control the order of execution


// without parentheses:
true || true && false || false
//----> true

// with brackets:
(true || true) && (false || false)
//----> false

#Simple guards

func greet(name: String?) {
  guard let unwrapped = name else {
    print("Hello guest!")
    return
  }
  print("Hello \(unwrapped)!")
}
greet(name: "Asma") // output: Hello Asma!
greet(name: nil)    // output: Hello guest!

#cycle

#scope

let zeroToThree = 0...3
//zeroToThree: 0, 1, 2, 3

#stride() function

for oddNum in stride(from: 1, to: 5, by: 2) {
  print(oddNum)
}
// print: 1
// print: 3

#for-in loop

for char in "hehe" {
  print(char)
}
// print: h
// print: e
// print: h
// print: e

#continue keyword

for num in 0...5 {
  if num % 2 == 0 {
    continue
  }
  print(num)
}
// print: 1
// print: 3
// print: 5

The continue keyword will force the loop to continue for the next iteration

#break keyword

for char in "supercalifragilistic" {
if char == "c" {
    break
  }
  print(char)
}
// print: s
// print: u
// print: p
// print: e
// print: r

#Use underscores

for _ in 1...3 {
  print("Ole")
}
// print: Ole
// print: Ole
// print: Ole

#while loop

var counter = 1
var stopNum = Int. random(in: 1...10)

while counter < stopNum {
  print(counter)
  counter += 1
}
// loop to print until the stop condition is met

A while loop accepts a condition and keeps executing its body code while the provided condition is true. If the condition is never false, the loop will keep running and the program will get stuck in an infinite loop

#Arrays and collections

#Array array

var scores = [Int]()
// array is empty: []

#.count property

var grocery = ["πŸ₯“", "πŸ₯ž", "πŸͺ", "πŸ₯›", "🍊"]
print(grocery.count)
// print: 5

#index

The index refers to the item's position in the ordered list, and a single element is retrieved from the array using the subscript syntax array[index].

var vowels = ["a", "e", "i", "o", "u"]

print(vowels[0]) // prints: a
print(vowels[1]) // prints: e
print(vowels[2]) // print: i
print(vowels[3]) // prints: o
print(vowels[4]) // prints: u

Note: Swift arrays are zero-indexed, meaning the first element has index 0.

#Initialize with array literal

// use type inference:
var snowfall = [2.4, 3.6, 3.4, 1.8, 0.0]
// explicit type:
var temp: [Int] = [33, 31, 30, 38, 44]

#.append() method and += operator

var gymBadges = ["Boulder", "Cascade"]
gymBadges.append("Thunder")
gymBadges += ["Rainbow", "Soul"]
// ["Boulder", "Cascade", "Thunder",
// "Rainbow", "Soul"]

#.insert() and .remove() methods

var moon = ["πŸŒ–", "πŸŒ—", "🌘", "πŸŒ‘"]
moon.insert("πŸŒ•", at: 0)
// ["πŸŒ•", "πŸŒ–", "πŸŒ—", "🌘", "πŸŒ‘"]

moon. remove(at: 4)
// ["πŸŒ•", "πŸŒ–", "πŸŒ—", "🌘"]

#Traverse the array

var employees = ["Peter", "Denial", "Jame"]
for person in employees {
  print(person)
}
// print: Peter
// print: Denial
// print: Jam

#Collection (Set)

var paintingsInMOMA: Set = [
  "The Dream",
  "The Starry Night",
  "The False Mirror"
]

We can use a collection (Set) to store unique elements of the same data type

#Empty collection (Set)

var team = Set<String>()

print(team)
// print: [] 

#Populate the collection

var vowels: Set = ["a", "e", "i", "o","u"]

To create a set filled with values, use the Set keyword before the assignment operator.

#.insert()

var cookieJar: Set = [
  "Chocolate Chip",
  "Oatmeal Raisin"
]
// add a new element
cookieJar.insert("Peanut Butter Chip")

#.remove() and .removeAll() methods

var oddNumbers: Set = [1, 2, 3, 5]

// remove existing element
oddNumbers.remove(2)
// remove all elements
oddNumbers.removeAll()

#.contains()

var names: Set = ["Rosa", "Doug", "Waldo"]
print(names.contains("Lola")) // print: false

if names.contains("Waldo"){
  print("There's Waldo!")
} else {
  print("Where's Waldo?")
}
// print: There's Waldo!

#Iterate over a collection

var recipe: Set = ["Egg", "Flour", "Sugar"]

for ingredient in recipe {
  print ("Include \(ingredient) in the recipe")
}

#.isEmpty property

var emptySet = Set<String>()
print(emptySet.isEmpty)     // print: true

var populatedSet: Set = [1, 2, 3]
print(populatedSet.isEmpty) // print: false

#.count property

var band: Set = ["Peter", "Denial", "Jame"]

print("The band has \(band.count) players.")
// print: Band has 4 players.

#.intersection() Intersection

var setA: Set = ["A", "B", "C", "D"]
var setB: Set = ["C", "D", "E", "F"]

var setC = setA.intersection(setB)
print(setC) // print: ["D", "C"]

#.union()

var setA: Set = ["A", "B", "C", "D"]
var setB: Set = ["C", "D", "E", "F"]

var setC = setA.union(setB)
print(setC) 
// print: ["B", "A", "D", "F", "C", "E"]

#.symmetricDifference() Symmetric difference

var setA: Set = ["A", "B", "C", "D"]
var setB: Set = ["C", "D", "E", "F"]

var setC = setA.symmetricDifference(setB)
print(setC)
// print: ["B", "E", "F", "A"]

#.subtracting() Subtraction

var setA: Set = ["A", "B", "C", "D"]
var setB: Set = ["C", "D"]

var setC = setA.subtracting(setB)
print(setC) 
// print: ["B", "A"]

#dictionary

#Base Dictionary

var dictionaryName = [
  "Key1": "Value1",
  "Key2": "Value2",
  "Key3": "Value3"
]

An unordered collection of pairs of data or key-value pairs

#Keys

var fruitStand = [
  "Coconuts": 12,
  "Pineapples": 12,
  "Papaya": 12
]

Each key is unique even if they all contain the same value

#Type Consistency

var numberOfSides = [
  "triangle": 3,
  "square": 4,
  "rectangle": 4
]

Contains only String keys and Int values

#Initialize and populate the dictionary

var employeeID = [
  "Hamlet": 1367,
  "Horatio": 8261,
  "Ophelia": 9318
]

#Initialize an empty dictionary

// initializer syntax:
var yearlyFishPopulation = [Int: Int]()

// Empty dictionary literal syntax:
var yearlyBirdPopulation: [Int: Int] = [:]

#add to dictionary

var pronunciation = [
  "library": "laiΒ·brehΒ·ree",
  "apple": "aΒ·pl"
]
// new key: "programming", new value: "prow gra"
pronunciation["programming"] = "prowΒ·gra"

#Delete key-value pair

var bookShelf = [
  "Goodnight": "Margaret Wise Brown",
  "The BFG": "Roald Dahl",
  "Falling Up": "Shel Silverstein",
  "No, David!": "David Shannon"
]
// remove value by setting key to nil
bookShelf["The BFG"] = nil

// remove value using .removeValue()
bookShelf. removeValue(forKey: "Goodnight")

// remove all values
bookShelf. removeAll()

#Modify the key-value pair

var change = [
  "Quarter": 0.29,
  "Dime": 0.15,
  "Nickel": 0.05
]

// Change the value using subscript syntax
change["Quarter"] = .25

// Change the value using .updateValue()
change. updateValue(.10, forKey: "Dime")

To change the value of a key-value pair, use the .updateValue() method or the subscript syntax by appending brackets [ ] with the existing keys within to the name of the dictionary, then adding the assignment operator (= ) followed by the modified value

#.isEmpty property

var bakery = [String:Int]()

// check if the dictionary is empty
print(bakery.isEmpty) // prints true
bakery["Cupcakes"] = 12
// check if the dictionary is empty
print(bakery.isEmpty) // print false

#.count property

var fruitStand = [
  "Apples": 12,
  "Oranges", 17
]
print(fruitStand.count) // print: 2

#Assigning values to variables

var hex = [
  "red": "#ff0000",
  "yellow": "#ffff00",
  "blue": "#0000ff",
]

print("Blue hexadecimal code \(hex["blue"])")
// print: blue hex code Optional("#0000ff")

if let redHex = hex["red"] {
  print("red hexadecimal code \(redHex)")
}
// print: red hex code #ff0000

Assigning the value of a key-value pair to a variable will return an optional value. To extract values, use the optional expansion

#Traversing the dictionary

var emojiMeaning = [
  "πŸ€”": "Thinking Face",
  "πŸ˜ͺ": "Sleepy Face",
  "😡": "Dizzy Face"
]
// loop through keys and values
for (emoji, meaning) in emojiMeaning {
  print("\(emoji) is called '\(meaning)Emoji'")
}
// iterate through keys only
for emoji in emojiMeaning. keys {
  print(emoji)
}
// iterate through values only
for meaning in emojiMeaning. values {
  print(meaning)
}

#function

#Basic functions

func washCar() -> Void {
  print("Soap")
  print("Scrub")
  print("Rinse")
  print("Dry")
}

#Call functions

func greetLearner() {
 print("Welcome to CheatSheets.zip!")
}
// function call:
greetLearner()
// print: Welcome to CheatSheets.zip!

#return value

let birthYear = 1994
var currentYear = 2020

func findAge() -> Int {
  return currentYear-birthYear
}

print(findAge()) // prints: 26

#Multiple parameters

func convertFracToDec(numerator: Double, denominator: Double) -> Double {
  return numerator / denominator
}

let decimal = convertFracToDec(numerator: 1.0, denominator: 2.0)
print(decimal) // prints: 0.5

#Omit parameter labels

func findDiff(_ a: Int, b: Int) -> Int {
  return a -b
}

print(findDiff(6, b: 4)) // prints: 2

#return multiple values

func smartphoneModel() -> (name: String, version: String, yearReleased: Int) {
  return ("iPhone", "8 Plus", 2017)
}
let phone = smartphoneModel()

print(phone.name)         // print: iPhone
print(phone.version)      // print: 8 Plus
print(phone.yearReleased) // print: 2017

#Parameters & Arguments

func findSquarePerimet(side: Int) -> Int {
  return side *4
}

let perimeter = findSquarePerimet(side: 5)
print(perimeter) // print: 20

// Parameter: side
// Argument: 5

#Implicit return

func nextTotalSolarEclipse() -> String {
  "April 8th, 2024 🌎"
}

print(nextTotalSolarEclipse())
// print: April 8th, 2024 🌎

#Default parameters

func greet(person: String = "guest") {
  print("Hello \(person)")
}
greet() // Hello guest
greet(person: "Aliya") // Hello Aliya

#Input and output parameters

var currentSeason = "Winter"

func season(month: Int, name: inout String) {
  switch month {
    case 1...2:
      name = "Winter ⛄️"
    case 3...6:
      name = "Spring 🌱"
    case 7...9:
      name = "Summer β›±"
    case 10...11:
      name = "Autumn πŸ‚"
    default:
      name = "Unknown"
  }
}
season(month: 4, name: &currentSeason)

print(currentSeason) // Spring 🌱

#variable parameter

func totalStudent(data: String...) -> Int {
  let numStudents = data.count
  return numStudents
}

print(totalStudent(data: "Denial", "Peter"))
// print: 2

#Optional parameters

func getFirstInitial(from name: String?) -> String? {
  return name?.first
}

Functions can accept optional types and return optional types. When a function cannot return a reasonable instance of the requested type, it should return nil

#structure

#Structure Creation

struct Building {
  var address: String
  var floors: Int
  init(address: String, floors: Int) {
    self.address = address
    self. floors = floors
  }
}

Structs or structs are used to programmatically represent real-life objects in code. A structure is created using the struct keyword, followed by its name, followed by a body containing its properties and methods

#Default property values

struct Car {
  var numOfWheels = 4
  var topSpeed = 80
}

var reliantRobin = Car(numOfWheels: 3)

print(reliantRobin.numOfWheels) // prints: 3
print(reliantRobin.topSpeed)    // print: 80

#Structural instance creation

struct Person {
  var name: String
  var age: Int

  init(name: String, age: Int) {
    self.name = name
    self. age = age
  }
}

// Person instance:
var morty = Person(name: "Peter", age: 14)

#init() method

struct TV {
  var size: Int
  var type: String
  
  init(size: Int, type: String) {
    self.size = size
    self.type = type
  }
}

Using the TV class

var newTV = TV(size: 65, type: "LED")

#Check type

print(type(of: "abc")) // print: String
print(type(of: 123))   // print: 123

#Mutation method (mutating)

struct Menu {
  var menuItems = ["Fries", "Burgers"]
  mutating func addToMenu(dish: String) {
    self.menuItems.append(dish)
  }
}

Using the Menu class

var dinerMenu = Menu()
dinerMenu.addToMenu(dish: "Toast")
print(dinerMenu.menuItems)
// prints: ["Fries", "Burgers", "Toast"]

#Structural methods

struct Dog {
  func bark() {
    print("Woof")
  }
}
let fido = Dog()
fido.bark() // prints: Woof

#class

#reference type (class)

class Player {
  var name: String

  init(name: String) {
    self.name = name
  }
}

var player1 = Player(name: "Tomoko")
var player2 = player1
player2.name = "Isabella"

print(player1.name) // Isabella
print(player2.name) // Isabella

#instance of the class

class Person {
  var name = ""
  var age = 0
}

var sonny = Person()
// sonny is now an instance of Person

#init() method

class Fruit {
  var hasSeeds = true
  var color: String

  init(color: String) {
    self.color = color
  }
}

Using the Fruit class

let apple = Fruit(color: "red")

A class can be initialized using the init() method and the corresponding initialization properties. In the init() method, the self keyword is used to refer to the actual instance of the class assigning property values

#Class Attributes

var ferris = Student()

ferris.name = "Ferris Bueller"
ferris.year = 12
ferris.gpa = 3.81
ferris.honors = false

#Inherit

Suppose we have a BankAccount class:

class BankAccount {
  var balance = 0.0
  func deposit(amount: Double) {
    balance += amount
  }
  func withdraw(amount: Double) {
    balance -= amount
  }
}

SavingsAccount extends BankAccount class

class SavingsAccount: BankAccount {
  varinterest = 0.0

  func addInterest() {
    let interest = balance *0.005
    self. deposit(amount: interest)
  }
}

The new SavingsAccount class (subclass) automatically gets all the characteristics of the BankAccount class (superclass). Additionally, the SavingsAccount class defines an .interest property and an .addInterest() method.

#Example

use data type

class Student {
  var name: String
  var year: Int
  var gpa: Double
  var honors: Bool
}

Use default property values

class Student {
  var name = ""
  var gpa = 0.0
  var honors = false
}

#This is an example of a struct definition and a class definition

struct Resolution {
  var width = 0
  var height = 0
}
class VideoMode {
  var resolution = Resolution()
  var interlaced = false
  var frameRate = 0.0
  var name: String?
}

The Resolution structure definition and the VideoMode class definition only describe the appearance of Resolution or VideoMode, create an instance of the structure or class:

let resolution = Resolution(width: 1920)
let someVideoMode = VideoMode()

#Enumerate

#Define the enumeration

enum Day {
  case monday
  case tuesday
  case wednesday
  case thursday
  case friday
  case saturday
  case sunday
}

let casualWorkday: Day = .friday

#Switch statement

enum Dessert {
  case cake(flavor: String)
  case vanillaIceCream(scoops: Int)
  case brownie
}

let customerOrder: Dessert = .cake(flavor: "Red Velvet")
switch customerOrder {
  case let .cake(flavor):
    print("You ordered a \(flavor) cake")
  case .brownie:
    print("You ordered a chocolate cake")
}
// prints: "You ordered a red velvet cake"

#CaseIterable

enum Season: CaseIterable {
  case winter
  case spring
  case summer
  case falls
}

for season in Season.allCases {
  print(season)
}

Add conformance to the CaseIterable protocol to access the allCases property, which returns an array of all cases of the enumeration

#Original value

enum Beatle: String {
  case john paul george ringo
}

print("The Beatles are \(Beatle.john.rawValue).")
// print: The Beatles are john.
enum Dessert {
  case cake(flavor: String)
  case vanillaIceCream(scoops: Int)
  case brownie
}

let order: Dessert = .cake(flavor: "Red Velvet")

#instance method

enum Traffic {
  case light
  case heavy

  mutating func reportAccident() {
    self = .heavy
  }
}

var currentTraffic: Traffic = .light

currentTraffic. reportAccident()
// currentTraffic is now .heavy

Just like classes and structs, enumerations can have instance methods. If an instance method mutates the value of the enum, it needs to be marked mutating

#Initialize from primitive value

enum Hello: String {
  case english = "Hello"
  case japanese = "Hello!"
  case emoji = "πŸ‘‹"
}
let hello1 = Hello(rawValue: "Hello!")
let hello2 = Hello(rawValue: "ΠŸΡ€ΠΈΠ²Π΅Ρ‚")
print(hello1) // Optional(Hello.japanese)
print(hello2) // nil

#Computed properties

enum ShirtSize: String {
  case small = "S"
  case medium = "M"
  case large = "L"
  case extraLarge = "XL"
  var description: String {
    return "The size of this shirt is \(self.rawValue)"
  }
}